Tuesday, November 18, 2008

Just the FACS: Reprise on Insertional Mutagenesis

I've just returned from the annual European Society of Gene and Cell Therapy meeting in Belgium.  Lots of great material for upcoming posts. For now, I want to follow on the last posting on the leukemias in the X-SCID study.  A warning: those lacking a stomach for science geek-talk might want to skip this posting.

In the previous posting, I stated that a recent paper provided evidence that retroviral integration in the genome ("insertional mutagensis") had triggered leukemias in the X-SCID study rather than over-expression of the corrective gene ("transgene"), the gamma c-chain (hereafter, "gc").  This was on the basis of data in the graphic above, which used cell sorting to show that levels of gc on the surface of T-cells was within a normal range.  In Belgium, Adrian Thrasher presented similar data for the fifth leukemia.

When I first encountered this figure, it bothered me: why did the authors measure gc expression by cell surface markers (a technique called "FACS") rather than Western or Northern blotting, or quantitative PCR, or something along these lines?  It seemed a very indirect way of seeing whether gc expression levels are in fact normal. Here are two possibilities that this figure fails to rule out:  1- gc is expressed at very high levels, but not packaged and presented on the surface of T-cells, perhaps because of insufficiency of other receptor components; 2- some gc transgene is aberrantly spliced, such that surface levels are normal, but intracellular concentrations of the alternate splicing product are abnormal.

A few years back, one team of researchers presented data indicating that gc transgene overexpression contributes to T-cell transformation. Another team claimed it was unable to reproduce this. The jury seems to still be out on whether the gc product contributed to the X-SCID leukemias, and I'm not yet convinced that the latest round of data fully exonerates the gc chain. (Graphic: figure from Salima Hacein-Bey-Abina et al, J Clinical Investigation 2008; 108: 3132-42).

No comments: